Chrysanthemum is a short day plant. It is important cut flower due to its wide colour range and varying forms and today an area of 315 hectare is under chrysanthemum cultivation in himachal Pradesh.
Chrysanthemum can be grown easily under outdoor conditions except during critical stage of extreme temperature, hot-sun, and rains etc. where polythene cover may be provided.
Light and temperature are two important environmental factors influencing growth and flowering. The optimum day and night temperature for chrysanthemum are 18-21 c and 10-16 c, respectively.
Required Soil of Chrysanthemum
Sandy loam soils are preferred for the cultivation of chrysanthemum because they retain sufficient moisture and provide optimum aeration essential for proper root growth. Chrysanthemum thrives best in slightly acidic soils with PH ranging between 6.2 to 6.7.
Both standard and spay type of chrysanthemum are being grown in himachal Pradesh.
|Colour||Name of The Cultivar|
|White||Purnima, White Star, Snow Ball, Solan Shrinagar|
|Pink||Tata Century, Fiji|
|Orange||Thai Ching Queen|
|Yellow||Fiji Yellow, Sonar Bangla, Mountaineer, Solan, Gaurav|
|White||Baggi, Surf, Birbal Sahni, White Bouquet|
|Yellow||Ajay, Nanako, Kundan, Solan Swarnima|
Propagation and Planting Time
Suckers: After flowering, dried flowering stems are cut above 3-4 inches from ground level. The plants should be irrigated twice a week and supplemented with 5 kg of FYM/m2. The suckers can be separated from February on onwards.
Terminal Cutting: These cutting are taken from healthy stock plants from end of April to mid June and planted in protected structures for rooting. Five to seven cm long cutting are made by removing the basal leaves. For enhancing rooting, these cutting can be treated with 500 ppm NAA for 10-15 seconds before planting in sand.
Water is sprayed for 4-5 times a day. Rooting takes place within 3-4 weeks. Cuttings are generally planted from May to July depending upon the location and cultivar. Under mid hill conditions of himachal Pradesh, the planting time of commercial cultivars is as follows.
|Surf||Spray||Till third week of May|
|White star & Tata Century||Standard||Last week of May|
|Purnima||Standard||First week of June|
|Nanako & White Bouquet||Spray||Till first week of June|
|Ajay||Spray||Till first week of July|
|Yellow Star||Standard||May first week to July third week|
Pinching and Disbudding
Soft pinching is done by removing the terminal portion when the plants are 15-20 cm tall. In standard types, allow terminal bud and remove axillary buds while in spray types, terminal bud is removed and axillary buds are allowed to bloom.
Staking: When shoots are 30 cm tall, provide the support. In standard cultivars, number of stakes depends upon the number of side branches.
In spray types, 3-4 stakes are inserted on the bank of the pot and are tied with string from the bottom to top which gives good support to developing branches and finally to flowers.
Irrigation: the plants should be watered twice in a week or depending upon the soil moisture conditions.
Manures and Fertilizers: For quality flower production of cultivars Ajay and Purnima one week before planting, well rotten FYM 5 kg/m2 should be applied uniformly. Along with this, vermicompost 1 kg m2, 22.5 G P single super Phosphate 140.62 g/m2 and k Muriate of Potash 37.5 g/m2 and 11.25 g of N Urea 24.46 g/m2 must be incorporated into the beds.
The remaining 11.25 g of N Urea 24.46 g/m2 should be applied after 30 days of planting. Biofertilizers namely Azotobacter and PSB should be applied by dipping the roots of cuttings into slurry of 200 g of the incoculam dissolved dissolved in 1 litre of 10 per cent sugar solution 100 g Sugar 1 litre of 10 per cent sugar solution 100 g sugar 1 of water at the time of planting and at the same time, AM 2g/plant should be applied in the planting pit.
Off Season Flowering Programming Scheduling
It can be obtained by either selecting suitable cultivars or by controlling photoperiod
|Early 70-100 days||Jaya, Jubliee|
|Mid season 100-130 days||Ajay, Kundan, Mountaineer, Shyama|
|Late more than 130 days||Gulmohar|
- Controlling Photoperiod
Flowering in chrysanthemum can be regulated by controlling photoperiod. Artificial lights are provided for getting vegetative growth and artificial short days are provided for getting flowering. These both are provided during the times of unfavorable natural photoperiod.
Procedure of Controlling Photoperiod
- Artificial Long Days: Artificial long days are provided with the help of 60 watt incandescent lamps (one/m2) placed at 80-120 cm above the plant tip during night for 4 hours (12-4 AM)
- Artificial Short Days: Artificial short days are provided by covering the plants completely with thick dark coloured tarpaulin cloth for 16 hours (5 PM To 9AM). In addition to this, artificial short days can be provided by covering the plants completely with high density polythene (Black Inside, White Outside) For 16 hrs (5 PM To 9AM) daily.
Year-Round Flower Production
Using artificial and or natural photoperiod, following cultivars have been found suitable for year-round flowering during different times of the year.
For year round flower production of Chrysanthemum, 30 cultivars namely; Fiji, Mountaineer, Snow Ball, Sonar Bangala, Tata Century, Thai Ching Queen, Ajay, Baggi, Birbal Sahni, Delilah, Charm, Fun Shine, Glance, Jubilee, Majoor Bosshardt Wit, Nanako, Mini Queen, Rage, Ravi Kiran, Regal Davis, Reagan Emperer, Reagan Wit, Rita, Santa Dina, Shyama, Surf, V 3 Local Collection, Vymini, West Land yellow And Yellow Gold were found suitable when these are planted during December, February, April And June months.
For August planting only 14 cultivars namely; Fiji, Snow Ball, Thai Ching Queen, Ajay, Delilah, Fun Shine, Glance, Majoor Bosshardt Wit, Nanako, Rage, Regal Davis, Santa Dina, Surf And West Land Yallow Have been found suitable for off season flowering.
For October planting, 7 cultivars namely; Ajay, Glance, Majoor Bosshardt Wit, Reagan Emperer, Reagan Wit, Santa Dina And Surf have been found suitable for off season flowing. A part from these other cultivars namely purnima, Yellow Star, White Star and White Bouquet are also suitable for off season cut flower production.
Spray cultivars are cut when the lower 2-3 flowers are opened, whereas standards are picked at the unopened stage when only a few outer ray florets ar unfurled, during evening or morning hours. For distant market, both types are cut at half open stage.
On an average a single plant yields 45-55 cut stems year, whereas the loose flower yield is 750 g-2 kg plant depending upon the variety.
Gunny bags, bamboo boxes or cartons measuring 91x43x15 cm are used for packaging. Cushion of rolled newspaper is placed at the bottom of box and the flowers are placed with the neck resting on the cushion. Next row of flowers is laid in such a way that the heads rest on the neck of those below and a sheet of cellophane paper is placed under each layer to prevent drying and brushing.
Leaf Blight Septoria: The disease appears after the onset of monoon. The symptoms are manifested as black, circular or elliptical lesions on leaves which are surrounded by narrow chlorotic hole. These lesions enlarge to form irregular brown patches, resulting in premature defoliation.
Remove lower leaves of the plants with the onset of monsoons.