In these days of increased pollution, floriculture and landscaping hold promise as eco-friendly, high profit futuristic industry. In himachal Pradesh, floriculture and landscaping are becoming fast growing commercial enterprises. The climate of our state is quite congenial for the production of gladiolus, carnation, Chrysanthemum, Marigold, Tuberose, Aster and various bulbous flowers which can fetch high prices in big cities especially during the off season.
|The commercial production of cut flowers in the state has steadily picked up with ample of technology generated by this department and at present about 913 hectares of area is under commercial flower cultivation. With the recent changes in the govt. policy, floriculture should attract more talent and capital to develop this industry for gearing it to the export market.||
Special Gladiolus Floriculture gardening Tools Available online
Other fields for commercial exploitation include production of flowers, seeds, rooted cuttings, pot plants and landscape nursery plants as well as production of micro propagated ornamental plants. Providing landscape consultancy for residential industrial public areas also needs to be encouraged for boosting up the tourist industry in the state and for general aesthetic improvement of the environment.
Gladiolus Is A Commercial Crop
Gladiolus is a commercial crop and can be grown in varying climatic conditions. The cultivation of gladiolus is important in himachal pradesh as it becomes an off season crop in the mid and high hills of the state. It is being grown commercially almost in all district of the state on an area of 101 hectares with maximum area being in district sirmour 63.14 hectares.
Climate of Gladiolus
Gladiolus can be grown upto an altitude of 2500 M amsl and in plains also. This crop likes sunny situations and an average temperature 15 C-20 C is necessary for proper growth of the plant.
Soil For Gladiolus
it prefers sandy loam soils for its cultivation. The PH value of soil should be 5-5 to 6.5 proper facilities for water drainage is must
|Yellow||Aldebaron, Jester, Nova Lux, Top Brass, Topaz, Vink’s Glory|
|White||Amercian White, White Friendship, White Prosperity|
|Pink||Friendship Pink, Suchitra, Spic & Span|
|Red||Amercian Beauty, Oscar, Red Majesty, Solan Mangla|
|Purple||Blue Lilac, Red Beauty, Interpid, Trader Horn, Mayur, Marvellous|
Planting And Flowering Time
|Planting Time||Flowering Time|
|Low Hills||July-Aug, Sept-Oct||Nov-March|
|Mid Hills||Feb-March, May||May-Oct|
Planting density sq m: 25X15 CM 1M wide beds, 0.75 M Wide path for intensive cultivation.
Planting Depth: Plant the corms of size 4 cm and above, 8 cm deep in soil. planting depth should be slightly shallower on heavy soils than on lighter soils.
Propagation: planting stoc by cormels, flowering stock by corm size 4 cm & above
Cultural Practices Manures And Fertilizers: Fertilizer basal dose per square meter bed area
|N||30 G 13.8 G Urea|
|P2O5||30 G 4.8 G SSP|
|K2O||20 G 18.0 G MOP|
Also apply 30 G N/M2 at 6 Leaves stage
When plants attain a height of about 30 CM, they should be earthed up and process repeated after 2-3 weeks to get a final height of 15 cm and staking should be done after spike emergence or when required.
Weeding: Hand weeding, once in a fortnight is essential for a healthy crop. off season flowering.
Off season flowers of Gladiolus cvs. White friendship and suchitra can be produced under mid hill conditions successfully by planting them in October November under Polyhouse which produce quality flowers in February-March.
i) Sept 15th to March 30th Twice a week
ii) April 1st to June 30th Thrice a week
iii) July 1st to Sept 15th Once in 15 days depending upon weather
For distant markets spikes should be cut at tight bud stage with two to three leaves remaining on the stem when the lowest bud shows colour. For local market, cut the spike when lower flower has started opening. Harvest the spikes during morning or evening hours.
|Grade||Spike Length CM||Min. Number of Florets||Grade||No. of Flowers Spike|
|Fancy||>107||16||Exhibition||14 And above|
|Special||96 to 107||15||Standard||11 to 13|
|Standard||81 to 96||12||Commercial||8 to 10|
|Utility||<81||10||Utility||Less than 8|
Gladiolus Floriculture & Landscaping Gardening Tools:
Presently, only two grades are popular in the market.
A. Above 9 Florets/Spike
B. Less than 9 Florets/Spike
Cut flowers in a bunch of ten spikes are packed without water in box made of cardboard which measures 33x33x120 cm. Tube light boxes or gunny bags can also be used.
Harvesting of Corms
Corms are harvested when leaves start drying. They are well dried in shade, packed in plastic crates or gunny bags with proper aeration and stored in a cold store at 5-10 C.
|Yield of Flowers||24 Spikes M2|
|Yield of Corms||24 Corms M2|
|Cormels||1-1.2 Kg M2|
Plant Protection Tools
|Gladiolus Flower Planting Protection Tools||→ Gladiolus Floriculture Manual Sprayer 1 Litre|
|Gladiolus Flower Planting Protection Tools||→ Gladiolus Floriculture 5-Litre Plastic Manual Sprayer|
|Gladiolus Flower Planting Protection Tools||→ Gladiolus Floriculture 1. 5 Litre Handheld Garden Spray|
|Gladiolus Flower Planting Protection Tools||→ Gladiolus Floriculture Garden Plastic Pressure Sprayer Pump|
|Gladiolus Flower Planting Protection Tools||→ Gladiolus Floriculture Garden Pressure Sprayer Pump 1.5 Liters|
- Fusarium Yellows and Corm rot Fusarium Oxysporum fsp. Gladioli: Roots may show discrete brown lesions or a general rotting, leaf infection is basal and associated with corm rot. leaf yellowing, starting with oldest leaves, is seen occasionally. corm rot in the field is soft, invaded by other organisms and is associated with brown wiry roots. In storage, rotting may begin anywhere on corm surface, but most spots are found at base next to the core by scrapping the corms, browning can be seen.
Control: Use disease free corm stock and provide good ventilation in storage.
2. Grey Mould Botrytis Cinerea: On leaves, large oval to round, brown spots appear. spots occur on flowers and stems also. At first the spots are pale brown and then become dark. A soft, brown rotting at the base of florets may develop after rainfall. In a moist, cool atmosphere, the whole flower becomes covered with brownish grey growth of the fungal spores.
Control: 1. Remove old flowers spikes and destroy. 2. give hot water treatment to corms by dipping them in water at 52 c for half an hour before planting.
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